“Muslim” is the Arabic word for “acceptor”–those who accept the faith of Islam found in the Koran. At the center of the Muslim world is Islam–a community that is the kingdom of God on earth. Muhammad (c 570-632 CE) was the expositor of Islamic truth revealed by God to Muhammad through the angel Gabriel and written down in the Koran. The revealed word of God was disseminated by followers of Muhammad at far as India where first mosque was established in 629 and through Mughal Empire
ruled most of the Indian Subcontinent between 1526 and 1857. The Tang Dynasty (618-907 BC) found the first Muslims in China where they built the Huaisheng Mosque.
An Arab-Berber (Ummayad) army crossed from North Africa into Spain in 710 and speedily conquered most of the Iberian peninsula, driving the Visigoth rulers into the northern mountains. In 718 a small Christian army, led by the nobleman Pelagius, defeated the caliphate’s army in the mountains of northern Iberia and established a small, but independent, Christian Kingdom of Asturias. The year 718 was the beginning of a reconquest of Iberia that reached its height in a war with the Emirate of Grenada by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella in 1482 to January 1492.
The Ottoman Empire at its peak stretched from the Caucuses, the Balkans and Anatolia to the Middle East and North Africa. Under Suleiman the Magnificent it conquered Belgrade, Budapest, Rhodes, Algiers and Baghdad.
The Siege of Vienna in 1529 was the first attempt by the Ottoman Empire, led by Suleiman the Magnificent, to capture the city of Vienna, Austria. Conflict with Ottomans ranged from 1389 to 1683 and led to historic encounters between Ottoman Muslims and Christian regimes in the west,.
Battle of Kosovo (1389)
Battle of Varna (1444)
Conquest of Constantinople (1453)
Capture of Belgrade (1521)
Seige of Vienna (1529)
Attack on Malta (1565)
Attack on Cyprus (1571)
Battle of Lepanto (1571)
Seige of Vienna (1683)
Notable were four major battles, the Battle of Malta (1565), the invasion of Cyprus (1570) and the Battle of Lepanto (1571) and the seige of Vienna (1583)
The siege of Vienna in 1583 signaled the pinnacle of the Ottoman Empire’s power and the maximum extent of Ottoman expansion in central Europe. A second siege was waged from July 14 to early September 1683 by a vast Turkish army under the Turkish Serasker (Supreme Commander), Grand Vizier Kara Mustafa. After fending off 18 major Turkish assaults, only a third of the originally 11,500-strong garrison in Vienna remained fit for combat and their munitions were nearly exhausted. Responding to a call for help from Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I, Imperial troops and additional forces from Saxony, Bavaria, Baden, Franconia and Swabia led by the King of Poland, John Sobieski, defeated Mustafa Pasha on September 11, 1683.
The attack on the World Trade Towers occurred 328 years later on September 11 2001